The street like an exhibition. Looking for bats and hippocampuses on Bolshaya Nikitskaya
One of the oldest streets in Moscow, Bolshaya Nikitskaya, stretches from Manezhnaya to Kudrinskaya Square. Its oldest part (from Manezhnaya Square to Nikitskiye Gate) was formed in the XV century along the route of the Volotskaya (Novgorodskaya) road. Under Ivan III, the first central governing body of the capital, the Yamskoy Dvor, was located here. Under Ivan the Terrible, the Kislovskaya Sloboda (the territory of modern Kislovsky lanes) was built on the left side of the street, the residents of which preserved pickles for the royal court.
At the end of the XVI century, the courts of the nobility began to appear here. In 1582, boyar Nikita Romanovich Zakharyin-Yuryev, grandfather of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, founded the Nikitsky Monastery near the church of Nikita the Martyr. The street got its name in honor of him.
Lopatina's Mansion: patterned terem
54 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, building 1
The mansion of merchant Anna Lopatina, similar to the boyar's terem, is one of the most striking examples of Russian style in Moscow. Its facade is covered with an ornament resembling folk cross-stitch or a jacquard pattern knitted on knitting needles, the similar can be found on a sweater, mittens or socks.
Ceramic tiles with floral patterns are located between the semicircular windows of the ground floor. They were made in the workshop of ceramist-technologist Semyon Maslenikov. The windows of the first floor are crowned with three-part kokoshniks. The ceramic-faced building was an unusual solution for the second half of the XIX century. The wrought-iron fence, entwined with an ornament of flowers and curlicues, is also noteworthy.
This house was built in 1876 by Alexander Kaminsky. Since its owner was engaged in the supply of seafood to Moscow restaurants, she initially planned to erect a complex of buildings - a residential building, offices, warehouses and a building for a refrigerator. However, Kaminsky proposed to combine everything in one building: the basement was allocated for storage, offices were located on the ground floor, and the first floor was divided into premises for rent. Lopatina's private rooms were also located there.
After the revolution of 1917, there were communal apartments here. The attic second floor was built on in 1928 - it housed a dormitory for Bolshevik veterans. Since 1963, the Embassy of Brazil has been located in the building.
The former building of the Paradis theater: the facade of Shekhtel, the interiors of Vrubel, Vasnetsov and Polenov
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, house 19/13
Another striking example of the Russian style is the house in which the Vladimir Mayakovsky Moscow Academic Theater is located today. The building originated here in the XVIII century and belonged to the Streshnevs family. The theatrical history of the house began at the end of the XIX century, when the Paradis theater was opened in it.
The German actor and owner of the theatrical concern Georg Paradis rented the building in 1885 and rebuilt it as a theater. The reconstruction was done according to the project of Konstantin Tersky, and the young Fyodor Shekhtel worked with the facade. Artists Mikhail Vrubel, Viktor Vasnetsov and Vasily Polenov took part in the creation of the interiors. The red brick building, similar to a carved terem, attracted the attention of the townspeople. At that time, it was crowned by a high hipped roof with a patterned ridge and spires. Two side turrets had finials, which today, as well as the roof, are lost.
In 1893, the building was rented by entrepreneur Yakov Shchukin for his theater, also known as the founder of the Hermitage Garden. Sarah Bernhardt, Ernesto Rossi, Eleonora Duze and many other foreign stars performed on the stage of the Shchukin’s Theater. And on May 1, 1899, “The Seagull” was played here for just one spectator - the author of the play Anton Chekhov.
In 1922, the building was handed over to the Theater of the Revolution, headed by Vsevolod Meyerhold. The name of Mayakovsky was given to the theater in 1954.
Kolychevs House - Synodal School building: the best concert hall
11/4 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, building 1
The estate, built on Bolshaya Nikitskaya at the beginning of the XVIII century, belonged to the noble-born Kolychevs for almost 100 years. At the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries, a wooden house on a stone foundation was reconstructed according to the project of an unknown architect in the manner of classicism. The three-storey house was connected to the side wings by arches: on the left - a false one, on the right - a going through one. The entrances to the arches are framed by ionic columns (with a capital in the form of a curl - volute).
The center of the facade composition is occupied by a pedimented portico with six columns of the Corinthian order (with capitals in the form of baskets with acanthus leaves). The strict facade is decorated with medallions with molding female heads.
Since 1809, the manor house belonged to Peter Bordakov, an associate of Alexander Suvorov, later passed to the nephew of the great commander - General Andrei Gorchakov. In 1856, the manor house was handed over to the Moscow Synodal Office of the Most Holy Governing Synod. The Synodal Choir and the Moscow Synodal School of Church Singing are located here.
At the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century, a four-storey house designed by Vladimir Sher and a concert hall were attached to the building. The latter was considered one of the best in Moscow. After the October Revolution, the Synodal School was transformed into the State Folk Choral Academy. And since 1963, the building has been occupied by the Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory.
Zoological Museum of Moscow State University: stucco animals
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, house 2 (former house 6)
One of the first buildings in Moscow erected specifically for the museum was the creation of the chief architect of Moscow University Konstantin Bykovsky. The Zoological Museum building was completed in 1902.
The house is located at the intersection of Bolshaya Nikitskaya with Nikitsky Lane. The architect made equal both facades by placing a semicircular entrance with two columns on a cut corner of the building. The style of construction can be defined as classicism with elements of eclecticism. The ground floor is decorated with rustication, processed in the form of horizontally elongated pyramids.
Along the entire facade facing Bolshaya Nikitskaya and part of the facade from Nikitsky Lane, a stucco frieze lines along in the form of vegetable garlands with the heads of sheep, hares, bears, as well as birds and squirrels. The pilasters capitals (flat protrusions of the wall resembling columns) above the main entrance to the building are decorated with bats.
From the Bolshaya Nikitskaya side, the facade is decorated with a portico of eight columns, the capitals of which are stylized as Corinthian ones. Animal heads can also be seen on the capitals. And the semicircular windows located between the columns are decorated with stucco molding in the form of thin-legged birds - herons or cranes.
Until 1953, part of the museum's premises were given over to the apartments of professors of the Moscow University Faculty of Biology. Writer and playwright Mikhail Bulgakov was a frequent guest here. Later, one of the professors, Alexey Severtsov, became the prototype of Professor Persikov, the hero of his Fatal Eggs novella. Artists Vasily Kandinsky, Robert Falk and many other artists also visited that place. It was here that Osip Mandelstam wrote his famous poem beginning with the lines:
I'll tell you with the last
It's all just nonsense - sherry-brandy,
The Orlovs - Meshcherskys House: ancient stories
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, house 5
Opposite the Zoological Museum there is another example of classicism, an earlier one. The Orlovs - Meshcherskys House was included by architect Matvey Kazakov in the album of the best private buildings in the city.
Since 1765, it belonged to the youngest of the Orlov brothers, Count Vladimir Grigoryevich. The building was rebuilt twice: in 1792 it became a two-story building, and in 1799 Matvey Kazakov was invited for major reconstruction. In the courtyard between the two risalits (the protruding parts of the building), stone two-storey ‘seni’ was built - a lobby with a balcony. The guests of the balls, who were excited by dancing, could come out to it - there was no such thing in any house in Moscow at that time.
During the fire of 1812, the house was damaged. In the 1830s, its restoration and decoration were carried out by Osip Bove and Santino Campioni, who built on the second floor. Before the revolution, the house was owned by the princes Meshcherskiye.
From the Bolshaya Nikitskaya side, the facade of the house is symmetrical. It is decorated with a portico of four pilasters of the Corinthian order. Between the pilasters there are bas-reliefs depicting ancient scenes. On the sides of the portico, above the windows of the first floor, there are stucco hippocampuses - sea horses with a fish tail.
Ya.A. Recca - S.D. Krasilshchikova Mansion: cheetahs and flowers
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, house 56
There is also a sample of Art Nouveau on Bolshaya Nikitskaya. The house was built in 1903 for Serafima Krasilshchikova - the hereditary honorary citizeness.
It was built on the site, which in 1902 was bought by the banker and entrepreneur Yakov Rekk. He invited architect Gustav Gelrich to design a two-storey mansion with a residential basement. The ground floor of the house was supposed to be the front one, and the first floor - residential. Krasilshchikova bought an unfinished house and asked to redo the project.
The facade of the building is decorated with stucco in the form of plants, flowers, leaves, ribbons and flowing draperies. Under the eaves you can see the heads of cheetahs and men's masks. In the left part of the facade there is an entrance arch, above which a wrought-iron decor stands out in all its beauty. On the first floor above the entrance there is a semicircular bay window, which is crowned by a small dome, as if covered with scales. In the right part of the building there used to be a little balcony, which is now lost.
After the revolution of 1917, the owner of the building emigrated, and communal apartments were arranged in the house. In the middle of the XX century, it was given to the Egyptian Embassy. Today, the Embassy of Myanmar is located there.