‘Nanobricks’ and laser scalpels: Moscow young researchers’ winning innovations now in practical use

‘Nanobricks’ and laser scalpels: Moscow young researchers’ winning innovations now in practical use
Every year, young researchers  under 35 who have made a significant contribution to the development of science are awarded by the Moscow Government. This article on mos.ru will review the most highly recognised projects that are now in practical use in Moscow and the whole of Russia.

The city recognises developments in areas of significance to the Government, including energy, energy saving, the IT sector, transport, new construction materials and research in biotechnology, medicine and other fields.

The winners of the competition are determined by a commission under the Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship. The cash prize is 1 million roubles.

Since 2013, the award has been given to over 70 people working at Moscow research institutes, universities and companies. Starting this year, PhDs aged between 36 and 40 will be allowed to compete for individual prizes. The previous age limit was 35.

Speed records and ‘nanobricks’

The ATR-100-10 high-speed transceiver for optical communication lines has set world records and was used at the Sochi Olympics. This device, which won the award in the Electronics and Communications category, was developed by Nikolai Gurkin, a designer at a Skolkovo Tecnopolis.

The device will transmit up to 100 gigabits per second over very-long distances. Record figures were recorded by leading manufacturers of optical fiber. The device bettered the best foreign devices in a number of parameters. Rostelecom has used ATR-100-10 technology for over 10,000 kilomtres of communication lines. 

Maxim Shcherbakov, at Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Physics Faculty, also contributed to ultra-fast data transmission technology. His innovation, awarded the prize in the Information and Communications category, was the creation of the world’s fastest nanoscale optical switch – a ‘brick’ on which to build the key elements of new optoelectronic devices.

Photos in any weather

The AKTS-4 software and hardware system is used at several toll road pay points in Russia. Using a video camera, it automatically identifies the vehicle type and toll category. The developers, Anton Grigoryev, Timur Khanipov and Yelena Kuznetsova from the Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems, were given the prize in the Road and Rail Transport and Infrastructure category.

The device surpasses its foreign counterparts in terms of stability and accuracy. The classifier is able to recognise 99.7 percent of vehicles, regardless of the weather.

New materials and revolutionary devices

New physical phenomena needed to create storage nanodevices were discovered by Maxim Silibin and Dmitry Kiselyov from the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology. The prize winners in the Technical and Engineering Sciences category developed membrane polymeric materials for microelectromechanical systems. Their work will result in the global transformation of computer technology.

Alexei Belov from the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology also contributed to the technological revolution. He won the New Materials and Nanotechnology category by creating nanoscale components in integrated electronics and microsystem technology. The development is now being applied by major Russian industrial companies.

Satellites in orbit and the laws of the Universe

The movement of several satellites is controlled by calculations made by Stepan Tkachyov, Danila Ivanov and Dmitry Roldugin from the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics at the Russian Academy of Sciences.

This research, which won the prize in the Mathematics, Mechanics and Informatics category, is devoted to satellites in orbit. The decisions used to control large satellites cannot be applied to small ones.

Another step towards better understanding the laws of the Universe was made by Grigory Rubtsov from the Institute for Nuclear Research at the Russian Academy of Sciences.

His series of studies, which was awarded the prize in the Physics and Astronomy category, straddled the line between astrophysics research and theoretical models of elementary particle physics. The results have been recognised by the scientific community. Some experts even called them the most significant in the world.

“Fixing” DNA and overcoming cancer

A new technique to detect DNA damage is presented in Svetlana Khoronenkova’s research. Khoronenkova is on the Chemistry Faculty at Lomonosov Moscow State University. In the future, this discovery will lead to the storage and adjustment of human genetic information and to the prevention of serious diseases.

A cell’s defence mechanisms may be indispensable in cancer therapy. This is the subject of research by Omar Kantidze and Artyom Velichko at the Institute of Gene Biology at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Their research is helping to prevent the malignant degeneration and aging of cells and was awarded the prize in the Biology category. 

Software developed by Anna Kudryavtseva, Alexei Dmitriyev and Georgy Krasnov at the Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology at the Russian Academy of Sciences, is providing a new method for studying the occurrence and development of cancer. This software won the prize in the Medical Sciences category. 

Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma is now possible thanks to research by Kirill Zaitsev and Stanislav Yurchenko from the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. They were awarded the prize in the Technical and Engineering Sciences category.

Igor Doronin and Irina Kholodenko from a high-tech Moscow company have also contributed to the fight against cancer. Their innovative method for treating cancer using recombinant modified fragments of GD2-specific antibodies received the prize in the Biotechnology category.

Irina Alekseyenko from the Institute of Molecular Genetics at the Russian Academy of Sciences received the prize in the Pharmacy category for developing a fundamentally new gene-based therapeutic drug to treat head and neck cancer.

Laser scalpel and optical forceps

Dmitry Sitnikov and Inna Ilyina from the Institute of High Temperatures at the Russian Academy of Sciences managed to combine two medical instruments – the laser scalpel and optical forceps. This innovation is used in treating infertility, and it also increases the efficiency and safety of assisted reproductive technology. The researchers received the prize in the Medical Equipment and Materials category.

Yelena Klimashina from the Materials Science Faculty at Lomonosov Moscow State University was awarded in the same category for developing titanium dental implants, which improve installation and the success rate for patients with disorders of the jaw bone structure. This innovative technology will be used to provide high-tech dental care.

A new method to analyse intestinal microflora was put forth by Dmitry Alekseyev from the Scientific Research Institute of Physical-Chemical Medicine at the Federal Medical & Biological Agency. He also discovered a link between the state of microflora and the influence of drugs on various diseases. The development allows for evaluating the safety and efficiency of drugs and received the prize in the Biotechnology category. 

Smart manufacturing and a new generation alloys

Important components for fifth-generation aircraft engines can now be manufactured domestically. Vyacheslav Bazhenov from the National University of Science and Technology MISiS developed a technology to create large thin-walled parts made of titanium alloys with maximum dimensional accuracy. The development won the Aircraft and Space Technology category.

Olga Stolyarova and Alexei Mezrin from the Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics at the Russian Academy of Sciences created new alloys that can replace obsolete bearing compounds. The development was awarded the prize in the Road and Rail Transport and Infrastructure category and will be applied in various industries including transport.

A development by Pyotr Nikishechkin, Ilya Kovalyov and Alexander Obukhov from Moscow State Technological University STANKIN opens unlimited opportunities to develop smart manufacturing.

The scientists created a multi-function module to solve problems in industrial automation. The innovation, which received the prize in the Advanced Industrial Technology category, is being used in high-tech companies in Moscow.

Science for the Megacity

Technology developed by researchers from Lomonosov Moscow State University, and awarded in the Science for the Megacity category, will make urban buildings brighter and more beautiful. Ilya Roslyakov and Kirill Napolsky from the Materials Science Faculty created aluminum panels with a unique coating, which changes colour when viewed from different angles.

Andrei Vashchenko, Alexei Katsaba and Sergei Ambrozevich from the Lebedev Physical Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences proposed alternative, energy-efficient next-generation lighting. They developed prototypes of light sources based on organic diodes with semiconductor nanocrystals. Leading Russian companies plan to use this technology.